This means radiation can be used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Understanding Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Heat always moves from a warmer place to a cooler place. 1 In clinical therapy, photon radiation is most commonly generated by linear accelerators or gamma-ray sources that produce a range of ionizing photon energies. File Name: File Size: File Type: index.asp: 33065: ASP File Ionizing_Radiation.ppt: 203264: PPT File MSH_TB_RadiationSafetyPt2.ppt: 1497600: PPT File Change materials if necessary to use more standard processes(EMA expectation). The concept of radiosensitivity … Abstract. Radiation therapy most often uses X-rays, but protons or other types of energy also can be used. radiation. Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses beams of intense energy to kill cancer cells. 0000007217 00000 n The functioning of an antenna depends upon the radiation mechanism of a transmission line. 0000005914 00000 n Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to room temperature. man tries a great deal to control these factors. Standing Ovation Award: "Best PowerPoint Templates" - Download your favorites today! View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Radiation Protection In Diagnostic Radiology PPT. Radioactivity and Radiation P.12.C.3 - Students know nuclear reactions convert a relatively small amount of material into a large amount of energy. google_color_text = "000000"; 0000005309 00000 n google_ad_width = 300; Electromagnetic radiation can also be described as discrete packets of energy called photons. ul.nav ul.nav {margin-top: 6px; margin-left: 1.2em; padding-left: 1.2em; line-height: 24px; COLOR: #ffffff;} Specific heat and latent heat of fusion and vaporization. Radiation causes the ionization of the gas in a Geiger-Müller tube. The idea here is to explain the physical concepts that produce radiation in terms of electrons flowing on a wire. Radiation PowerPoint Template. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. Patients may receive radiation 5 days in Radiation, flow of atomic and subatomic particles and of waves, such as those that characterize heat rays, light rays, and X rays. Hot objects in a cooler room will cool to room temperature. 0000003969 00000 n Measuring Radiation Exposure. The radiation dose characterizes the energy absorption or the primary, physical action of radiation, which is the first link in the complex reaction chain leading to a biological endpoint. Material properties Mechanical properties quantities that characterize the behavior of a material in response to external, or applied forces quantities that characterize the behavior of a material in response to physical phenomena other than mechanical forces …(e.g. Chapter 1 Basic Radiation Physics Concepts and Units of Measurement Page 1-1 1.1 Introduction In this chapter, our discussion begins by reviewing the standard terminology of radiation physics. Radiation Safety Basic Concepts: Part I This training is the first part of the mandatory Radiation Safety Orientation Training. 0000005893 00000 n Quantizing Electrons in the Radiator. 0000001668 00000 n The three basic particles of an atom are, protons, neutrons, and electrons. Electromagnetic radiation can be defined as a form of energy that is produced by the movement of electrically charged particles traveling through a matter or vacuum or by oscillating magnetic and electric disturbance. Polarization and physical phenomena Dichroism and anomalous dispersion I Though the etymology of the word is rather misleading, dichroism is a typical phenomenon of anisotropic media which consists in the fact that the absorption properties of the radiation … It can be interpreted as the combina-tion of electric and magnetic field, where the former is produced by stationary charges, and the letter by moving charges [4]. BASIC RADIATION PHYSICS 7 For photons, E = hn and E 0 = 0; thus using Eq. Planck's Law can be generalized as such: Every object emits radiation at all times and at all wavelengths. Chapter 24: The Origin of Species (Macroevolution) Macroevolution is essentially the formation of new species (speciation) and accompanying events Reproductive isolation can occur in a variety of ways Reproductive isolation is the key to cladogenic speciation Cladogenic speciation has two modes: allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation Radiation works by damaging the genes (DNA) in cells. Uses ionizing radiation to direct all radiation dose solely to the cancerous cells and destroy them. 0000004534 00000 n The Concept of Temperature (l). Each individual wave contributes an energy kT to the radiation in the box. 0000000923 00000 n 0000001773 00000 n IMi��Hi�OL�X�Z ���W������t�I.x��$r�P�X�J���Cd�9.i�^�%�C���D�GY�"��b9���zˋ}di�s xh1��X�;=�~��0Acl}�֣>�;��{P�_�MO ئ�t��l�7��:P�\2laҍ�$ȏ�Z�B6�f;v'�y���L��xs�*0Ύy��l׆RL�D�Ɠ �����arT�;x�H�W�'’9�A)����W�,�s8�6��%�ՇYk����? • This process produces ions. Home. google_color_url = "008000"; A.nav:visited {COLOR: #ffffff; TEXT-DECORATION: none} Published on September 19, 2015 April 6, 2020 by Free Powerpoint. CrystalGraphics brings you the world's biggest & best collection of radiation PowerPoint templates. Planck's law is a formula for the spectral radiance of an object at a given temperature as a function of frequency (L f) or wavelength (L λ).It has dimensions of power per solid angle per area per frequency or power per solid angle per area per wavelength. Physical principle of imaging with X-rays. Like x-rays, it is a form of electromagnetic radiation, as is visible light. The EMF is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It is usual to select an absorbed radiation level of 25 kGy1 (2.5 Mrad)2, although other levels may be employed provided that they have been validated. ul.nav {margin-top: 6px; margin-left: 12px; padding-left: 8px; line-height: 24px; COLOR: #ffffff;} Each person is exposed to an average of 2.4 mSv per year of ionizing radiation from natural sources. P.12.C.4 - Students know characteristics, applications and impacts of radioactivity. The sole functionality of an antenna is power radiation or reception. Global Heat Balance: Introduction to Heat Fluxes (k). 0000005202 00000 n The cell cycle goes through 5 phases, one of which is the actual This chapter introduces some of the major concepts and principles on which environmental physics depends. It considers how the transport of entities such as heat, mass, and momentum is determined by the state of the atmosphere and the corresponding state of the surface involved in the exchange, whether soil, vegetation, the coat of an animal, or the integument of an insect or seed. google_ad_height = 250; %PDF-1.2 %���� endstream endobj 83 0 obj 626 endobj 84 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 83 0 R >> stream The region next to it can be termed as radiating near field or Fresnel’s field as the radiation predominates and the angular field distribution, depends on the physical … such as heat, electricity, radiation) Physical properties The term "radiation therapy" most often refers to external beam radiation therapy. Gamma-radiation is penetrative in a manner similar to x-rays and has similar physical properties. Quantities for radiation protection { l : - The absorbed dose is the basic physical dosimetry quantity, but it is not entirely satisfactory for radiation protection purposes because the effectiveness in damaging human tissue differs for different types of ionizing radiation. 0000002552 00000 n The angular velocity becomes a well defined concept. H�lTMo�0��+戫�`�pm�H�T)��)��opِU��;c�ME+-���xޛa��TN,���D���-js�uҋ���K�۞��CZ��n���nW����l�"�V�\`���~7ߓ�S�yQM�l�%�J�V ,��. (1.13) we obtain p = hn/c = h/l, where n and l are the photon frequency and wavelength, respec-tively. EM Radiation: Photon Model. The concept of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable, known as ALARA, would no longer be required for low-level radiation exposures not expected to exceed the dose guidance levels significantly. diagnostics or radiation protection). 0000002531 00000 n A.nav:hover {COLOR: #000000; TEXT-DECORATION: none; background-color: lightyellow} Once you have successfully completely the quiz at the end of Part I of this training, register for “ Applied Radiation Safety: Part II. Radiation PowerPoint Template. (ii) Additional responsibilities (e.g. Antenna (whether it transmits or receives or does both) can be connected to the circuitry at the station through a transmission line. This Free PowerPoint Template is compatible with All Latest Microsoft PowerPoint Versions and can be also used as Google Slides Themes. The ALARA concept is an integral part of all activities that involve the use of radiation or radioactive materials and can help prevent unnecessary exposure as well as overexposure. If you think about it, this law is pretty hard to wrap your brain around. Presentation Summary : Radiation Therapy. google_ad_type = "text_image"; 0000001314 00000 n 8-2 Physical mechanism Thermal radiation is one kinds of the electromagnetic radiation, so it is propagated at the speed of light, 310m/s. understand the concept of potential temperature and how it relates to stability, buoyancy frequency and temperature lapse rate understand the concept of radiative-convective equilibrium know the components of the Earth radiation balance understand the concepts of optical depth, radiation intensity, irradi-ance, and transmission of radiation google_ad_client = "pub-4572730101251088"; Ionizing EM Radiation • EM radiation with wavelengths shorter than 100 nanometers can remove electrons from the outer atomic shells. Radiation quantities and units The most important radiation quantities and their units are listed in Table 1.3. The Greenhouse Effect (i). All normal matter at temperatures above absolute zero emits electromagnetic radiation, which represents a conversion of a body's internal thermal energy into electromagnetic energy, and is therefore called thermal radiation.Conversely, all normal matter absorbs electromagnetic radiation to some degree.An object that absorbs ALL radiation falling on it, at all wavelengths, is called a blackbody. All presentations are compiled by our Tutors and Institutes. 0000001879 00000 n In 1900, the German physicist Max Planck (1858–1947) explained the ultraviolet catastrophe by proposing that the energy of electromagnetic waves is quantized rather than continuous. All matter is constantly bombarded with radiation of both types from cosmic and terrestrial sources. This chapter discussed the most important physical and radiological quantities and … google_color_border = "616161"; A.nav:link {COLOR: #ffffff; TEXT-DECORATION: none; padding: 3px;} radiation •Some collide very hard, and produce short-wavelength radiation •Most are somewhere in between –As the body gets hotter, the number of collisions increase … The magnetic and the electric fields come at 90° to each other and the combined waves move perpendicular to both electric and magnetic oscillating fields occurring the disturbance. After concluding the study of Antenna Fundamentals, the next step in the understanding of antenna theory is to move on to the types of antennas page, where basic antenna types are discussed. the different types of radiation on the human body. Radiation damages the genes of a cancer cell so that it cannot grow and divide any more. Radioactive material is any material that emits, by spontaneous nuclear disintegration, corpuscular or electromagnetic emanations. Light transmits spatial and temporal information. Thermal conduction. Technological applications based on the manipulations of light include lasers, holography, and fibre-optic telecommunications systems.. Over time, the cells die. An important concept in radiation biology is that the most rapidly dividing cells are the least well differentiated and are the most sensitive to radiation and thus are the most vulnerable to radiation-induced death and injury. The three major principles to assist with maintaining doses “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” are … li.nav {text-indent: -8px; list-style-type: square; font-family: arial, helvetica; FONT-SIZE: 12px; color: #ffffff;} L�40)0�+F0�7p�0L8<1%Xԋ1����c�r� `�r endstream endobj 100 0 obj 305 endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 71 0 R /Resources 78 0 R /Contents [ 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 78 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /F2 79 0 R /F3 80 0 R /F4 91 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 98 0 R >> >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Times-Bold >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /Times-Roman >> endobj 81 0 obj 554 endobj 82 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 81 0 R >> stream Once you have successfully completely the quiz at the end of Part I of this training, register for “ Applied Radiation Safety: Part II. Blue Green and Red are the three primary colors of the visible spectrum. That was thermal radiation being released by these accelerated particles in the air around that explosion, which we perceived as a an explosion, or fire, but then it was warming up particles on my skin. Type B standard uncertainty is evaluated by means other than the statistical analysis. • Ions can interact with living tissue to produce biological damage. WINNER! It is very useful to study physical quantities as functions of the angular frequency. OK... you are probably saying, the sun is a big nuclear furnace, so it makes sense that it emits all sorts of electromagnetic radiation. Biological Environment Certain diseases do not occur in some areas because agents or vectors can not exist in that environment due to biological reasons. It can be stopped only by thick shields of lead or concrete, for example. 0000003256 00000 n google_color_bg = "lightyellow"; Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Physics Washington State University Radiation Safety Office - * Review. Posted by Unknown at 19:13 7 comments: Email This BlogThis! In general, the shorter wavelength radiation is more “particle-like” than the longer wavelength radiation. 2. Radiation Mechanism. Several different devices are used to detect and measure radiation, including Geiger counters, scintillation counters (scintillators), and radiation dosimeters ().Probably the best-known radiation instrument, the Geiger counter (also called the Geiger-Müller counter) detects and measures radiation. When radiation damages the genes of cancer cells, they can’t grow and divide any more. Introduction to radiation, its occurrence, effect on humans and government regulations in Nigeria to ensure the safety of her citizens. Evaluate chemical, and physical properties forEvaluate chemical, and physical properties for changes. Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation, which means that the radiation’s energy is sufficient to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom (more than 124 electron volts). unit vii powerpoint thermodynamic concepts: conduction, convection and radiation phs 1110- principles of physical science columbia southern university frank j. seay ii Kelvin was the first to coin the word “Thermodynamics”. in [19] related to radiation, but can also be seen as an attempt to resuscitate classical deterministic continuum mechanics (as opposed to statistical par-ticle mechanics) from the ‘ultraviolet catastrophe" by fusing it with a new concept of nite precision computation. Genes control how cells grow and divide. IAEA Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students - 16.5.1 Slide 3 16.5 QUANTITIES AND UNITS IN RADIATION PROTECTION 16.5.1. Let's try to derive the blackbody spectrum. Atmospheric Effects on Incoming Solar Radiation (g). trailer << /Size 101 /Info 74 0 R /Root 76 0 R /Prev 331153 /ID[<099c9405723356d897761b9615fa3555><099c9405723356d897761b9615fa3555>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 76 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 72 0 R >> endobj 99 0 obj << /S 303 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 100 0 R >> stream These regulations would facilitate studies using LDR for prevention and treatment of diseases. (Yuck!) H�lSM��0��+戫��r�n[m�J�����@�W��i�߱��t7���|��f&�*�����j����y+������]t�凄����HTut��ѯ��cI�U�Gz];�d������"T�����U/��P�"g� K�a����d���]7,�ќ=���@�=Eቭyw�uZ�Y�^�ÜW�#΂�}3 ���CrL��a˒�ǿ��(ej�L�p;׸0��P4�`���E�f�� �}�" ���L�K *S|U ������Ѧ�ZcZ�>)� Understanding Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Heat always moves from a warmer place to a cooler place. gist3”). Radiation Mechanism in Single Wire Antenna. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook Share to Pinterest. Radiation Safety Part Two – Managing the risks. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Radiation Protection In Diagnostic Radiology PPT ... Medical exposure contributes 99% of man-made radiation exposure to humans. Types of radiations in the elec- Most nuclei have a deformed axial shape. Physical Environment Physical aspects of environment Air, water, light, heat, radiation, gravity, pressure, and chemical agents etc. This is the only portion of the spectrum that can be associated with the concept of color. To understand how radiation works as a treatment, it is helpful to know about the normal life cycle of a cell. 0000001336 00000 n The Physical and Biological Bases of Radiation Therapy • 1.4 million malignant cancers / yr in the US • Half of them treated with radiotherapy • Radiation therapy uses both physics biology to maximize the differential between tumor control and side effects Able to describe the difference between fusion and fission. If there is no professional title in one or more of these professions, is there The biological effects of deep space radiation (GCR and SPE) are not well characterized, and these uncertainties prevent appropriately precise and valid probabilistic risk assessments. Radiation is energy that’s carried by waves or a stream of particles. Radiation Mechanism in Single Wire Antenna. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS (German: [maks ˈplaŋk] (); English: / ˈ p l æ ŋ k /; 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.. Planck made many … From classical thermodynamics, we know that the radiation in the box is in thermal equilibrium with the walls at temperature T.Radiation is absorbed and quickly reemitted by the walls, which creates oscillations in the frequency of the radiation.The mean thermal kinetic energy of an oscillating atom is 0.5kT. Uses Ionizing Radiation To Direct All Radiation Dose Solely 368159 PPT. IAEA Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students - 6.2.5 Slide 1 6.2 QUANTITIES USED IN DESCRIBING PHOTON BEAMS 6.2.5 Dose to small mass of medium in air The concept “dose to small mass of medium in air” also referred to as “dose in … 1 kilogray 2 megarad Radiation doses should be monitored … Global Patterns of Insolation Receipts (h). We know that the sun emits visible light (below left), infrared waves, and ultraviolet waves (below right), but did you know that the sun also emits microwaves, radio waves, and X-rays? The energy (E) is related to the wavelength (λ) in the wave model through Planck’s Constant (h) and the speed of light (c). This property forms the basis of the fields of optics and optical communications and a myriad of related technologies, both mature and emerging. //-->, body {margin: 0 0 0 0;} Electromagnetic radiation, on the other hand, consists of photons that have energy, but no mass or charge. This is the light, which our eyes can detect. Free + Easy to edit + Professional + Lots backgrounds. These electromagnetic radiations or X-ray work on the absorption of low level radiation by parts of our body with higher density,making the radiation not absorbed hit the photographic 'plate' to form a 'negative image'. 0000006617 00000 n However UV radiation is largely scattered by earth’s atmosphere and hence not used in field of remote sensing. Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to room temperature. Home. 0000003948 00000 n Radiation is the transmission or emission of energy in the form of particles or waves through space or through a material medium. google_ad_format = "300x250_as"; 1.1.9. Radiation Safety Basic Concepts: Part I This training is the first part of the mandatory Radiation Safety Orientation Training. The term chemical dose, however, describes only the existence of a chemical substance in this tissue and not the primary reaction yield of this substance. Radiation is energy in the form of particles or rays given off by unstable atoms.